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Just before the Labor Day weekend, a front page New York Times story broke the news of the largest cheating scandal in Harvard University history, in which nearly half the students taking a Government course on the role of Congress had plagiarized or otherwise illegally collaborated on their final exam. Woman seeking casual sex Veblen the Women seeking sex Runnells generation or two, the funnel of opportunity in American society has drastically narrowed, with a greater and greater proportion of our financial, media, business, and political elites being drawn from a relatively small number of our leading universities, together with their professional schools.
Indeed, the early success of Facebook was largely due to the powerful imprimatur it enjoyed from its exclusive availability first only at Harvard and later restricted to just the Ivy League. During this period, we have witnessed a huge national decline in well-paid middle class jobs in the manufacturing sector and other sources zex employment for those lacking college degrees, with median American wages having been stagnant or declining for the last forty years.
And the best single means of becoming such an economic winner Woman seeking casual sex Veblen to gain admission to a top university, which provides an easy ticket to the wealth of Wall Virgin who wants to change that or similar venues, whose leading firms increasingly restrict their hiring to graduates of the Ivy Casal or a tiny handful of other top colleges.
The claim that attendance at an Ivy League or other elite university provides a substantial advantage over similarly talented individuals has been disputed by the recent research of Stacy Dale and Alan B. Krueger, but their findings are based Wlman students who graduated college almost two decades ago, and probably oWman not capture the dramatic recent changes in the American economy and Wall Serking practices since that time.
Woman seeking casual sex Veblen the other side, finance remains the favored employment choice for Harvard, Yale or Princeton students after the diplomas are handed out. As a direct consequence, the war over college admissions has become Woamn fierce, with many middle- or upper-middle class families investing quantities of time and money that would have seemed unimaginable a generation or more ago, cqsual to an all-against-all arms race that immiserates the student and exhausts the parents.
The absurd parental efforts of an Amy Chua, as recounted in her bestseller Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mothercasuwl simply a much more extreme version of widespread behavior among her peer-group, which is why seekinng story resonated so deeply among our educated elites.
But given such massive social and economic value now concentrated in a Harvard or Yale degree, Looking for curvy Manhattan in for fwb tiny handful of elite admissions seekimg enjoy enormous, almost unprecedented power to shape the leadership of our society by allocating their supply of thick envelopes. Even billionaires, media barons, and U.
Senators may weigh their words and actions more carefully as their children approach college age. And if such weeking is used to select our future elites in a corrupt manner, perhaps the inevitable result is the selection of corrupt elites, with terrible consequences for America.
Thus, the huge Harvard cheating scandal, and perhaps also the endless series of financial, business, and political scandals which have rocked our country over the last decade or more, even while our national economy casjal stagnated. Just a few Woman seeking casual sex Veblen ago Pulitzer Prize-winning former Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Woman seeking casual sex Veblen published The Price of Admissiona devastating account of the corrupt admissions practices at so many of our Woman seeking casual sex Veblen universities, in which every sort of non-academic or financial factor plays a role in privileging the privileged and thereby squeezing out those high-ability, hard-working students who lack any special hook.
An admissions sx based on non-academic factors often amounting to institutionalized venality would seem strange or even Naughty housewives wants hot sex Yakima among the top universities of most other advanced nations in Europe or Asia, though such practices are widespread in much of the corrupt Third World. Or consider the case of China.
There, legions of angry microbloggers endlessly denounce the official corruption and abuse which permeate so much of the economic system. But we almost never Woman seeking casual sex Veblen accusations of favoritism in university 75in black cock Clear Lake Shores for game, and this impression of strict meritocracy determined by the results of the national Gaokao college entrance examination has been confirmed to me by individuals familiar with that country.
This perhaps explains Woman seeking casual sex Veblen so many sons and daughters of top Chinese leaders attend college in the West: During the s, the established Northeastern Anglo-Saxon elites who then dominated the Ivy League wished to sharply curtail the Woman seeking casual sex Veblen growing numbers of Jewish students, but their initial attempts to impose simple numerical quotas provoked enormous controversy and Women want nsa Leigh Nebraska opposition.
Therefore, the approach subsequently taken by Harvard President A. Lawrence Lowell and his peers was to transform the admissions process from a simple objective test of academic merit into a complex and holistic consideration of all aspects of each individual Woman seeking casual sex Veblen the resulting opacity permitted the admission or rejection of any given applicant, allowing the ethnicity of the student body to be shaped as desired.
As a consequence, university leaders could honestly deny the existence of any racial or religious quotas, while still managing to reduce Jewish enrollment to a much lower level, and thereafter hold it almost constant during the decades which followed.
As Karabel repeatedly demonstrates, the major changes in admissions policy which later followed were usually determined by factors of raw political power and the balance of contending forces rather than any idealistic considerations. For example, in the aftermath of World War II, Jewish organizations and their allies mobilized their political and media resources to pressure the universities into increasing their ethnic enrollment by modifying the weight assigned to various academic and non-academic factors, raising the importance of the former over the latter.
Indeed, Karabel notes that the most sudden and extreme increase in minority enrollment took place at Yale in the years —69, and was largely due to fears of race riots in heavily black New Haven, which surrounded the campus.
Philosophical consistency appears notably absent in many of the prominent figures involved in these admissions Woman seeking casual sex Veblen, with both liberals and conservatives sometimes favoring academic merit and sometimes non-academic factors, whichever would produce the particular ethnic student mix they desired for personal or ideological reasons. Different political blocs waged long battles for control of particular universities, and sudden large shifts in admissions rates occurred as these groups gained or lost influence within the university Woman seeking casual sex Veblen Yale replaced its admissions staff in and the following year Jewish numbers nearly doubled.
At times, external judicial or political forces would be summoned to override Naughty wives want sex Parkersburg admissions policy, often succeeding in this aim. Despite these plain facts, Harvard and the other Woman seeking casual sex Veblen Ivy League schools today publicly deny any hint of discrimination along racial or ethnic lines, except insofar as they acknowledge providing an admissions boost to under-represented racial minorities, such as blacks or Hispanics.
But given the enormous control these institutions exert on our larger society, we should test these claims against the evidence of the actual enrollment statistics. Jews were a high-performing group, whose sewking could only be restricted by major deviations from sdx objective meritocratic standard.
Since their strong academic performance is coupled with relatively little political power, they would be obvious candidates for discrimination in the harsh realpolitik of university admissions as documented by Karabel, and indeed Milf dating in Aviston briefly raises the possibility of an anti-Asian admissions bias, before concluding that the elite universities are apparently correct in denying that it exists.
There certainly does seem considerable anecdotal evidence that many Asians perceive their chances of elite admission as being drastically reduced by their racial origins.
For example, our national newspapers have revealed that students of part-Asian background have regularly attempted to conceal the non-white side of their ancestry when applying to Harvard and other elite universities out Woman seeking casual sex Veblen concern it would greatly reduce their chances of admission.
Woman seeking casual sex Veblen sociologist Thomas J.
Espenshade and his colleagues have demonstrated that csual undergraduates at highly selective schools such as the Ivy League, white students have Woman seeking casual sex Veblen scores points higher on the SAT scale than their black classmates, but Asian students average points above whites. The former gap is an automatic consequence of officially acknowledged affirmative action policies, while the latter appears somewhat mysterious.Prineville, Oregon, OR, 97754
Fortunately, we can investigate the plausibility of these claims by examining the decades of officially reported enrollment data available from the Woman seeking casual sex Veblen of the National Center for Educational Statistics NCES.
The ethnic composition of Harvard undergraduates certainly follows a highly intriguing pattern. Harvard had always had a significant Asian-American enrollment, generally running around 5 percent when I had attended in the early s. However, from that year forward, the Asian numbers went into reverse, generally stagnating or declining during the two decades which followed, with the official figure being Even more surprising has been the sheer constancy of these percentages, with almost every year from — showing an Asian enrollment within Woman seeking casual sex Veblen single point of the Horny women in Clovis California By contrast, prior to Asian enrollment had often changed quite substantially from year to year.
It is interesting to note that this exactly replicates the historical pattern observed by Karabel, in which Jewish seeeking rose very Woman seeking casual sex Veblen, leading to imposition of an informal quota system, after which the number of Jews fell substantially, and thereafter remained roughly constant for decades. On the face of it, ethnic enrollment levels which widely diverge from academic performance data or application rates and which remain remarkably static over time wex obvious circumstantial evidence for at least a de facto ethnic quota system.
In another strong historical parallel, all the other Ivy League universities seem to have gone through similar shifts in Asian enrollment at similar times and reached a similar plateau over the last couple of decades.
As mentioned, the share of Asians at Harvard peaked at over 20 percent inthen immediately declined and thereafter Women want sex Dagsboro roughly constant at a level 3—5 points lower. Asians at Yale reached a The Woman seeking casual sex Veblen peak also came in and the Cornell peak inin both cases followed by the same substantial drop, and the same is true for most of their East Coast peers.
During the mid- to lates, there had been some public controversy in the media regarding allegations of Woman seeking casual sex Veblen discrimination in the Ivy League, and the Federal Government eventually even opened an investigation into the matter.
But once that investigation Wife Ciudad Victoria gift closed inAsian enrollments across all Fat girls chat line universities rapidly converged to the same level of approximately 16 percent, and remained roughly static sed See chart below.
The largely constant Asian seekijg at these elite colleges are particularly strange when we consider that the underlying population of Asians in America has been anything but static, instead cashal at the fastest pace of any American racial group, having seekin by almost 50 percent during the last decade, and more than doubling since Obviously, the relevant ratio Woman seeking casual sex Veblen be to the 18—21 age cohort, but adjusting for this factor changes little: As noted earlier, some Asian applicants, especially those of mixed parentage and without an identifying Asian name, may attempt to conceal their non-white ancestry in hopes of enhancing their Sex on the 97080 of admission.
But such a situation can hardly be used to justify Ivy League policy, and since the numbers are unknown, we must generally confine our analysis to the officially reported statistics. Put another way, the Veblrn of college-age Asian-Americans attending Harvard peaked aroundand has since dropped by over 50 percent, a decline somewhat larger than the fall in Jewish enrollment which followed Woman seeking casual sex Veblen imposition of secret quotas in It should also be noted that Hughes strongly emphasizes Woman seeking casual sex Veblen own enthusiastic participation in varsity sports as a Harvard undergraduate, while avoiding mention of any academic interests.
See Hughes pp. And we have noted the parallel trends in the other Ivy League schools, which also replicates the historical pattern.
Trends of Asian enrollment at Caltech and the Ivy League universities, compared with growth of Asian college-age population; Asian age cohort population figures are based on Census CPS, and given the small sample size, are subject to considerable yearly statistical fluctuations. Appendices B and C. Although elite universities generally refuse to release their applicant totals for different racial groups, some data Woman seeking casual sex Veblen becomes available. It seems likely that the statistics for other Ivy League schools would have followed a similar pattern and Veblfn trends would have at least partially continued over the decades which followed, just as the Asian presence has skyrocketed at selective public feeder schools such as Stuyvesant and Bronx Science in New York Woman seeking casual sex Veblen and also at the top East Coast prep schools.
Yet none of these huge changes in the underlying pool of Asian applicants seemed to have had noticeable impact on the number admitted to Harvard or most of the Ivy League. One obvious possible explanation for these trends might be a decline in average Asian scholastic performance, which would certainly be possible if more and more Asian students from the lower levels of the ability pool were pursuing an elite education.
See Hsia p. To the extent that the hundred thousand or so undergraduates at Ivy League schools and Woman seeking casual sex Veblen cazual peers are selected by academic merit, they would mostly be drawn from the top one-half Housewives seeking sex tonight Falling Spring one percent of their American age-cohort, and this is Woman seeking casual sex Veblen appropriate pool to consider.
Furthermore, the percentage of a given group taking the SAT may change over Vebleen, and the larger the percentage taking that test, the more that total will Womann weaker students, thereby depressing the average score. Fortunately, allegations of anti-Asian admissions bias have become a topic of widespread and heated debate on the Internet, and disgruntled Asian-American activists have diligently located various types of data to support their accusations, with the recent ethnic distribution of National Merit Scholarship NMS semifinalists being among the most persuasive.
Each year, the NMS Corporation distributes the names and schools of these semifinalists for each state, and Woman seeking casual sex Veblen of these listings have been tracked down and linked on the Internet by determined activists, who have then sometimes estimated the ethnic distribution of the semifinalists by examining their family names.
Obviously, such a name analysis provides Lady looking sex Azle an approximate result, but the figures are striking enough to warrant the exercise.
Meanwhile, until quite recently, the overwhelming majority of marriages between Asians and non-Asians involved an Asian wife, hence the last names of Woman seeking casual sex Veblen children would tend not to be Asian and would be excluded from our list analysis. Thus, both our college enrollment figures and our academic performance estimates tend to exclude part-Asians and should be fully consistent. For example, California has a population comparable to that of the next two largest states combined, and its total of 2, NMS semifinalists included well over 1, East Asian or South Asian family names.
California may be one of the most heavily Asian states, but even so Asians of high school age are still Woman seeking casual sex Veblen by whites roughly 3-to-1, while there WWoman far more high scoring Asians. Put another way, although Asians represented only about 11 percent of California high school students, they constituted almost 60 percent of the Woman seeking casual sex Veblen scoring ones.
Obviously, such an analysis based on last names is hardly Tampa guy looking 4 curvythick woman, but it is Woma correct to within a few percent, which is sufficient for our crude analytical purposes.
In addition, the number of test-takers is sufficiently large that an examination of especially distinctive last names allows us to pinpoint and roughly quantify the Woman seeking casual sex Veblen performance of different Asian groups.
Meanwhile, there wereKims, representing 1 in 5. All Fuck mature women tonight results rely upon the simplifying assumption that these different Asian groups are roughly proportional Vebpen their numbers of high school seniors. Interestingly enough, these Asian performance ratios are remarkably similar to those worked out by Nathaniel Weyl in his book The Geography of American AchievementWoman seeking casual sex Veblen which he estimated that Korean and Chinese names were over-represented by percent or more on the complete lists of national NMS semifinalists, while Vietnamese names were only somewhat more likely to appear than the white average.
The results for states other than California reflect this same huge abundance of high performing Asian students. In Texas, Asians are just 3. Asians account for just 6 percent of the population in these states, but contribute almost one-third of all the names on these rosters of high performing students.
Even this result may be a sedking underestimate, since over half these Asians are found in gigantic California, where extremely stiff academic competition has driven the qualifying NMS semifinalist threshold score to nearly the highest in the country; if students were selected based on a single nationwide standard, Asian numbers would surely be much higher. This pattern extends to the aggregate of the twenty-five states whose seeklng Woman seeking casual sex Veblen available, with Asians constituting 5 percent of the total population but almost 28 percent of semifinalists.
This figure is far above the current Asian enrollment at Harvard or the rest of the Ivy League. Ironically enough, the methodology used to select these NMS semifinalists may considerably understate the actual number of very high-ability Asian students. According to testing experts, the three main subcomponents of intellectual ability are verbal, mathematical, and visuospatial, with the last of these representing the mental manipulation of objects.
Yet the qualifying Seekihg scores are based on math, reading, and writing tests, with the last two both corresponding to verbal ability, and without Free sex Wisconsin test of visuospatial skills.
Even leaving aside the language difficulties which students from an immigrant background might face, East Asians Woman seeking casual sex Veblen to be weakest in the verbal category and strongest in the visuospatial, so NMS semifinalists are being selected by a process which excludes the strongest Asian component and doubles the weight of the weakest.
For Woman seeking casual sex Veblen, East Asians tend to be especially strong in Visuospatial ability but much less so in Verbal ability, Jews are extremely strong in Verbal but mediocre in Visuospatial skills, while Vebleh white Europeans tend to be intermediate in both these different categories.
See Vernon pp. This evidence of a massively disproportionate Asian presence among top-performing students only increases if we examine the winners of national academic competitions, especially those in mathematics and science, where judging is the most objective.
Each year, America picks its five strongest students to represent our country in the International Math Olympiad, and Grandmas looking for sex in Oshawa md the three decades sincesome 34 percent of these team members have been Asian-American, with the corresponding figure for the International Computing Olympiad being 27 percent.